SOCIAL FACTORS OF WOMEN’S EDUCATON DEVELOPMENT IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XXTH CENTURY

Olena Oleksiyivna TERENKO, Larisa Ivanivna KLOCHKO

Abstract


Introduction. Nowadays modern educational field is not enough structured according to the directions, for this reason spreading of gender knowledge that began in Ukraine is not fulfilled on equal footing. Gender approach must disclose and analyze differences in male and female education, gender misbalance in the system of education. But analyzing the state of gender education abroad one can state that the brightest is American experience of inclusion gender problems in the system of education. Taking into account previously mentioned facts analysis of American experience is useful for Ukraine, because our country is on the way of development of gender approaches in education.

Purpose. The aim of our article is to analyze factors, which influenced development of women’s education in the second half of the XX century.

 Results. Having analyzed the reasons of women’s education development we singled out certain factors that influenced its development. In 1944 G. I. Bill was signed, which provided military women with the opportunity to get education in higher educational establishments free of charge. In 1951 American Council on Education held a conference that was devoted to the problems of women’s  social roles change, for they started to fulfill the functions that earlier were performed only by men. A number of students increased due to migration of people from villages to cities. Council stated that women should raise children on scientific basis. In analyzed period concept «democracy» presupposed equal rights of people independently of race or social status.

We singled out legislative basis of analysis of female education among them was enactment of Equal Rights Amendment, Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, Nurse Training Act, Higher Education Facilities Act, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Higher Education Act. Besides national women’s party was established in American Parliament, which developed acts on economic, political and social equality of men and women.

In 1950 Ford’s foundation financed establishment of National Manpower Council, which stressed the necessity of getting higher education by women in private and state colleges and scientific research of concept “woman-worker”. D. Wolfe organized commission on Human Resources, which studied motivation of women, who wanted to get education and their problems in job hunting. In 1955 Philips Foundation created Commission on the Education of Women. In 1952 National Association of Deans of Women was established, members of which for the first time stated that women fulfill five social roles: personal, family, professional, civil and evaluative with dominating of one role on a certain stage of development.

 Originality. Summing up directions of organization research work we can state  that members of organization singled out seven directions that lead to diminishing the level of discrimination of women: singling out social roles of women in American society and sources of its incorrect identification; research of society influence on the motivation of women; differences in female and male upbringing; research of social factors which influence on leading of a certain role on different life stages; analysis of directions in which men and women want to change their lives. Comparing functioning of Commission on Human Recourses and Commission on the Education of Women, we came to conclusion that both establishments singled out reasons that pushed women to getting education.

Conclusion. Conducted research showed that social reasons of women’s colleges development are determined by changes in the system of women’s education. These changes are reinforced by enactment of certain laws that directed strategy and tactics of women’s education development. Diverse work of these organizations led to self-development and self-realization of women in American society, coordination of activities of state and private organizations for realization one of the fundamental rights of every person – right for education.


Keywords


women’s education; women’s college; National Manpower Council; Commission on Human Recourses; Philips Foundation; National Association of Deans of Women; Civil Rights Act; Higher Education Act.

References


Bannet, M. (1996). When Dreams Came True: the G. I. Bill and the Making of Modern America. Washington, D. C.: Brassey’s (in Engl.)

Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970. (1989) White Plains, N. Y.: Kraus International Publications (in Engl.)

Womanpower: a Statement by the National Manpower Council. (1957) New York: Columbia University Press (in Engl.)

The Span of the Women’s Life and Learning (1960). Washington, D. C: Commission on the Education of Women of the American Council of Education (in Engl.)

Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and the Body. Barkeley, CA: University of California Press (in Engl.)

Chin, J. (1997) Shaping the Future of Feminist Psychology: Education, Research and Practice . Barkeley, CA: University of California Press (in Engl.)

Barret, M. (1992) Destabilizing Theory: Contemporary Feminist Debate . Stanford: Stanford University Press (in Engl.)

Crosby, F. (2003) Juggling: The Unexpected Advantages of Balancing Career and Home for Women and their Families. New York: Free Press (in Engl.)

Maddock, S. (2009) Challenging Women, Gender, Culture and Organization. London: Sage Publications (in Engl.)

Sadker, M. (2004) Failing at Fairness: How School Cheat Girls. New York: Touchstone (in Engl.)


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