GENDER APPROACH AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF ADULT EDUCATION PROCEDURAL CHARACTERISTICS IN TURKEY AND THE USA

Olena TERENKO

Abstract


Introduction. During the last decades the politics of gender equality in society and in educational sphere, in particular, has become one of the key directions in Turkey and the USA. It is proved that society cannot be democratically if there are any forms of discrimination, taking into account gender discrimination. Scientific conferences that are devoted to the problems of gender equality in the sphere of higher education that are conducted in Turkey and the USA prove special importance of this problem. At the beginning of the XXI century vital interest raised in Ukrainian Pedagogic to unstandardized methods, forms and techniques of teaching. It is connected with the needs of society development, fulfillment of every personality educational needs and with enactment of certain acts that regulate functioning of educational institutions and provide integration of Ukraine in UNESCO educational programs for creation of educational links with foreign countries in the field of education. Women’s education is fundamentally traditional, for it was created certain centuries ago and innovative, because it is based on the methodology of gender and personalized approaches. National Academy of Science, National Research Foundation, and Ford’s Fund are the main establishments, which order gender studies.

Purpose. The aim of our article is to analyze gender approach in procedural characteristics of education in the USA and Turkey. The main assignments of the article are to characterize banking model of teaching and active model of teaching; trace differences between interdisciplinary and traditional disciplinary specialization of educational process; single out principles of gender education.

 Results. Nowadays gender education is the main form of constructive interaction of different educational directions. Problems of educational content and methods of teaching are viewed in this constructive interaction. Education is not finished by acquiring certain knowledge. It is reflexive, for it is finished due to understanding of action process, vision and assessment of its forms. Changing of different subjects approaches of teaching is important aspect of gender education in high school. Usage of innovative techniques is necessary, for gender education is aimed not only at providing students with knowledge, but also at destroying stereotypes of their thinking and behavior. In developed countries enactment of gender approach in education is viewed as broadening of life experience for development of every personality individual talents, obliteration of sex stereotypes in teachers’ thinking. One of the important ways of gender education fulfillment is development of women’s educational establishments system.

J. Klein and S. Sjolander analyzed principles, which are methodological basis of gender approach enactment in education. Having made comparative analysis of J. Klein and S. Sjolander works we can trace differences and uniformities in educators’ vision. Both J. Klein and S. Sjolander stressed that basic principles of educational process in the borders of gender approach are principles of interdisciplinary, democracy, participation and context. J. Klein stressed that usage of students’ experience as an educational source and orientation at investigation are additional factors that reinforce efficacy of educational process. At the same time S. Sjolander stated that efficacy of educational process can be raised due to usage of such principles as collaborative teaching and socialization.

As a result we single out the following principles that are basic methodological features of gender approach fulfillment in the USA and Turkey. Principle of triangle that is combination of several teaching forms such as groups with raised conscience, collaborative writing, lectures and visual techniques that helps to raise educational process efficacy due to diversification and enacting of cognitive activity of every student. Collaborative teaching, which presupposes interaction of educational process participators not in the format of teacher-student, but giving every student power that depends on contribution and interest in knowledge. This principle helps to form individual learning way and correct it due to achieved results. Interdisciplinary orientation of educational process which presupposes learning of every educational topic in interdisciplinary context. Due to this principles students can trace interdisciplinary links, that help to learn educational material more fundamentally. Democracy is the basis of good psychological climate creation that helps to raise efficacy of educational process. Participation principle helps to form individual learning style. Principle of context presupposes creation of knowledge that is relevant to experience of those who study and is an effective way of reinforcing inner motivation of those who study. Desocialisation presupposes critical approach to dominating educational conceptions and moving to dialogue that is a necessary element in formation of analytical skills. Orientation at research presupposes that teacher studies students and students investigate educational material. Mentioned principle helps to learn educational material actively and raise teacher’s pedagogical skills.

Conclusion. Conducted research showed that during the last decades the politics of gender equality in society and in educational sphere, in particular, has become one of the key directions in Turkey and the USA. Nowadays gender education is the main form of constructive interaction of different educational directions. Changing of different subjects approaches of teaching is important aspect of gender education in high school. Usage of innovative techniques is necessary, for gender education is aimed not only at providing students with knowledge, but also at destroying stereotypes of their thinking and behavior. In the USA and Turkey enactment of gender approach in education is viewed as broadening of life experience for development of every personality individual talents, obliteration of sex stereotypes in teachers’ thinking. Basic principles of gender education are collaborative learning, interdisciplinary orientation, democracy, participatory, context and orientation at research. Application of ten-stage model of interdisciplinary principle realization  helps not only trace interdisciplinary links  and personalize learning process, but also perfect teaching style and make adequate correction of individual learning way. Basic parts of active learning model are concrete experience, mirror observation, abstract conceptualization and active experiment. Kolb’s model of active learning is one of the important ways of every student cognition activation, development of his critical and creative skills.


Keywords


gender; gender approach; adult education; principle; method; form; model; function; Turkey; the USA.

References


Klein, J. (2006). Crossing Boundaries, Knowledge, Disciplinarities and Interdisciplinarities. Charlotsville: University Press of Virginia (in Engl.)

Sjolander, S. (2005). Long-term and Short-term Interdisciplinary Work: Difficulties, Pitfalls and Built-in Failures. Sweden: Linkoping University (in Engl.)

Kolb, D. (1994). Experiential Learning: Experience as a Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall (in Engl.)

The Span of the Women’s Life and Learning (1960). Washington, D. C: Commission on the Education of Women of the American Council of Education.

Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and the Body. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. (in Engl.)

Chin, J. (1997). Shaping the Future of Feminist Psychology: Education, Research and Practice. Barkeley, CA: University of California Press. (in Engl.)

Barret, M. (1992). Destabilizing Theory: Contemporary Feminist Debate. Stanford: Stanford University Press (in Engl.)

Maddock, S. (2009). Challenging Women, Gender, Culture and Organization. London: Sage Publications (in Engl.)

Sadker, M. (2004). Failing at Fairness: How School Cheat Girls. New York: Touchstone (in Engl.)

Taylor, K. (2009). Developing Adult Learners: Strategies for Teachers and Trainers. San Francisco: Jossey Bass (in Engl.)


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