THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE NATURE OF GIFTEDNESS IN UKRAINIAN COMPARATIVE-PEDAGOGICAL DISCOURSE
Introduction. The problems of giftedness for several decades have been the object of the research of Ukrainian scientists in the field of general pedagogy, comparative pedagogy, history of pedagogy, theory and methods of professional education, social pedagogic, pedagogical and age psychology, theory and methods of teaching separate subjects and the like. Among the works of the native authors in the context of our research the most interesting are the works which highlight the experience of foreign countries in the education of gifted children and youth.
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to reveal theoretical-methodological approaches to the study of the nature of giftedness in Ukrainian comparative-pedagogical discourse.
Methods: comparative analysis aimed at defining common features and differences in the approaches to defining giftedness and gifted education in the studied countries.
Results. The main dimensions of giftedness consideration are highlighted, in particular: 1) theoretical-methodological; 2) psychological-pedagogical; 3) historical-pedagogical; 4) organizational-pedagogical; 5) professional-pedagogical; 6) socio-pedagogical. It is stressed that theoretical-methodological dimension of the problem of giftedness is represented by works of such Ukrainian researchers as O. Antonova, O. Kovalenko, D. Koroliov, N. Lavrychenko, A. Sbrueva, P. Tadeev, O. Zabolotna and others. In the frames of this dimension the following approaches are analyzed: synergetic, systemic (O. Antonova); philosophical, psychological, psycho-pedagogical, acmeological and sociological (O. Kovalenko); environmental (D. Koroliov); political (A. Sbrueva). The models which explain the nature of giftedness, proposed by such Ukrainian researchers as O. Bevz, N. Lavrychenko, Yu. Pidborskiy and others are characterized, namely: 1) domain-general models, which laid the foundation for the future research of the nature of giftedness and talent; 2) domain-specific models that took as a basis the theory of intelligence, revealing a variety of specific areas of giftedness; 3) systems models, that expanded the models of the previous generations at the expense of other components of giftedness; 4) developmental models, within which the talent was discussed in the context of development, which included such external to the individual variable as environment.
Originality is conditioned by the fact that in the article an attempt to generalize comparative-pedagogical researches on the problem of theoretical and methodological approaches to the nature of giftedness is made.
Conclusions. On the basis of analysis of theses, monographs and scientific articles dedicated to the study of various aspects of gifted education it is concluded that since the beginning of the XXI century gifted education in foreign countries and in Ukraine had been of considerable interest for researchers, which was reflected in their works. The study of specific problems is characterized by the use of various, sometimes conflicting, scientific approaches and methods that, in our opinion, contribute to more comprehensive revealing of the studied processes.
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Antonova, O. Ye. (2006). Theoretical-methodological approaches to the study of nature of giftedness. Pedagogical process: theory and practice, 1, 7–17. Kyiv: Millennium (in Ukr.)
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